While most of us believe that remote working is a post-pandemic creation, the concept goes way further back than you think. Before the establishment of the internet and a world ruled by technology, people worked their trades in their homes. In fact, before the industrial revolution, you would only gather workers in the same place to achieve a common goal if you were in the military, building something, or treating ill people at a health facility.
Office spaces and daily commutes, as we know them today, are a relatively new concept that is still, sadly, and for the most part, highly familiar with those of a factory floor. It’s no wonder people are getting tired of it… once again.
As the digital age was born, the concept of remote working has been brought back to light. But it was only in 2020 when people were forced to work from home due to the pandemic, that working remotely shifted from a rare option to a real possibility for most workers around the globe.
Now, as more and more professionals are starting to realize that remote working can also mean traveling and experiencing other cultures while working from their laptops, governments are also taking huge steps into making this easier by introducing digital nomad visas.
If you are already a digital nomad or if you’re considering becoming one, here you’ll find a list of all the digital nomad visa programs available in Europe in 2023 and how to apply for each of them.
What is a Digital Nomad Visa
A digital nomad visa is a temporary permit that grants visitors the right to stay in a country for a specific amount of time while working remotely. Most of these visas have a duration of one year and can usually be extended.
This type of program targets remote workers, freelancers, and online entrepreneurs who can prove sufficient funds to support themselves while working for a foreign-based employer, client, or business.
Some remote workers who travel more frequently might prefer to visit on a tourist visa, which typically grants a 30-90 day stay, but if you plan to stay longer than 3 months, a digital nomad visa is probably the best option.
Overview of Digital Nomad Visas in Europe in 2023
From February 2021 to April 2023, the amount of countries that offer digital nomad visas has almost tripled! At the moment, more than 50 countries offer this category of Visa around the world and 17 of them are located in Europe. Here’s an overview of all of the digital nomad visas in Europe in 2023:
Digital Nomad Visas in Europe in Detail – Requirements & How to Apply
Note: we have taken great care into putting up only the most updated information in this blog post.
Known as the Unique Permit, Albania’s new digital nomad visa was introduced at the start of 2022 in a review of the law “On Foreigners”.
⏰ Visa Length: 12 months, renewable for 12 more months, and after that five years. If you do the full 7 years you can apply for permanent residency.
💻 Who Qualifies: Digital nomads who can provide a contract with a foreign company, a service contract with a foreign contractor, or a contract with a client for a specific remote project. A diploma, certificate or another qualification document that demonstrates your professional capacities are also required.
Self-employed digital nomads can also apply for a D Visa as self-employed, for which the rules and process are very similar.
🤑 Income Requirements: While no minimum income is specified it is estimated at $9,800 per year. You are required to submit payslips, employment contracts, and bank statements from the last six months to prove your financial self-sufficiency.
Note: Applicants can also bring their families, including spouses and children with them to Albania, although how this affects the minimum income requirements is unclear.
📄 Document Requirements: Proof of Accommodation, proof of an Albanian Bank Account (you can find the list of active banks in Albania here), proof of Health Insurance valid in Albania with a minimum coverage of €30,000, and a clean criminal record for any country that you have lived in for the last five years.
Note: all documents should be authenticated for international use with an Apostille.
💲 Visa Cost: Albania uses a reciprocal system for determining the cost of visas. To know how much you would have to pay for a visa, just check how much an Albanian citizen would be expected to pay to apply for a visa for your home country.
🤓 How to apply: Albania has an e-visa portal where you can apply for all visas offered by the country. You should first make a registration with your name and email address and then click on Apply Now once you’re ready to start your visa application. Choose the Type D visa, and then the digital mobile worker option and fill out the online application form.
🕓 How long is the process: Applications should be processed within a maximum of 12 weeks and the approval or rejection of the request is notified online.
💰 Cost of Living: Albania is a very affordable country and if you’re used to a modest lifestyle you can live on around $700 a month, although the average cost of living for a single person is around €1,108 per month.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: Some of the biggest hotspots for digital nomads in Albania include the capital Tirana, Durres, and Vlore.
📈 Internet speed: Average 82 Mbps.
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads: If your home country is not on this list, you will be required to pay taxes on both foreign and domestic income. Tax on foreign income kicks in once you have been in the country for 183 days and become a tax resident. The personal tax rate is 15% on the first 150,000 ALL (€1330) per month and 23% on all income above that.
From its Riviera with some of the best beaches in the Mediterranean and its Alps dotted with incredible hiking trails and waterfalls, Albania has it all! And all while keeping its small city and off-the-beaten-track vibes. The country offers a great infrastructure for digital nomads, with plenty of cafes and coworking spaces. The cherry on top is the amazing cost of living, with a city-center apartment costing around only $300-$400 per month.
Armenia doesn’t have a proper digital nomad visa, but it offers a great visa option for digital nomads who are willing to start a business in the country. With this visa, digital nomads can register as sole proprietors in Armenia and work as freelancers with clients worldwide.
Note: While geographically situated in Asia, culturally, historically, and politically, Armenia is considered to be part of Europe so we’ll add it to this list.
⏰ Visa Length: After registering yourself as a sole proprietor in Armenia you’ll have to apply for either a temporary residency permit (valid for one year and renewable) or a permanent residency permit (valid for five years and renewable).
💻 Who Qualifies: Anyone who’s willing to register as a sole entrepreneur.
Note: This visa allows applicants to bring their families, including spouses and children, with them to Armenia.
🤑 Income Requirements: You are not required to prove any minimum income in order to open a business in Armenia.
📄 Document Requirements:
- The documents required to register as a sole proprietor include: Completed application form, original passport, copy of passport (translated to Armenian and apostilled), and proof of state fee payment. Once you are registered, you will be provided with a tax ID number. You will then need to wait about a month until you have made your first tax payment in order to apply for a residency permit.
- The documents required to apply for a residency permit include: Original passport, passport-size photos, copy of passport (translated to Armenian and apostilled), medical certificate verifying you are in good health, proof of business ownership in Armenia, and proof of the visa fee payment.
💲 Visa Cost: The state fee for registering a sole proprietorship is 3,000 Armenian Drams or around €7. The residency permit fee is 105,000 Armenian Drams or around €243 for temporary residency and 140,000 Armenian Drams or around €324 for permanent residency.
🤓 How to apply:
- Sole Proprietor Registration: submit the documents listed above to the State Register of Legal Entities in Armenia. You can do this remotely online, or directly with the help of a local lawyer, but you will need to give them power of attorney.
- Residency Permit: you’ll need to visit the Migration and Citizenship Service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Armenia in person – you do not need to make an appointment. You should take the documents listed above with you.
🕓 How long is the process: Business registration can be approved within two days of the date of submission of the required documents. Residency permits are issued within two months.
💰 Cost of Living: Armenia is a very affordable country! The average cost of living for a single person is €1,506 per month.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: Some of the biggest hotspots for digital nomads in Armenia include the capital Yerevan, Dilijan, and Gyumri.
📈 Internet speed: Average 38.67 Mbps.
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads: If you register as a sole proprietor, you will be required to pay taxes in Armenia. The tax rate for an annual income of up to $60,000 is around 20%. If your home country is not on this list, you may also find yourself liable for double taxes on your foreign income.
Armenia is affordable and safe, with beautiful scenery all across the country! With excellent internet connectivity, you can work from almost anywhere in the country. Armenians are very friendly and will go out of their way to help you, even when they don’t speak English. There’s a lot to explore too, being 28 years older than Rome, Armenia has an incredibly rich and eventful history, fascinating culture, and beautiful nature.
In January 2021, Croatia introduced its Digital Nomad Residence Permit which allows you to live and work in Croatia as a digital nomad.
⏰ Visa Length: Six months to a year, with the option to reapply after it expires. You must leave the country for 90 days once the visa validity ends, after which you can reapply.
💻 Who Qualifies: Non-EU citizens that are salaried employees, freelancers, or self-employed professionals working for/with non-Croatian clients.
🤑 Income Requirements: You are required to prove a monthly income of at least kn 16,907 or around €2,245, or proof of fund of kn 202,890 or around €26,930. To prove this, you’ll need to submit your bank statement from the previous 3 months.
📄 Document Requirements: Proof of Remote Work, Criminal Background Check (from the last country where you resided for more than one year before arriving in Croatia), proof of Health Insurance, proof of Accommodation (can be temporary, you can change it later at the local police station). If you’re taking your family members with you, you’ll need a marriage certificate or proof that you are in a common-law marriage. If you have children, you will need to attach their birth certificates.
Note: All required documents need to be translated and apostilled. You can find the full list of documents here.
💲 Visa Cost: If you apply at a Croatian embassy or consulate, you will pay ~$56 for the Temporary Permit plus ~$130 in other fees. If you apply in person at the local police in Croatia, you will pay around ~$46 for the Temporary Residence Permit plus ~$10 in administration fees.
🤓 How to apply: There are three ways to apply: you can complete the application online, you can submit the application in person to a Croatian embassy or consulate abroad, or you can apply at the local police station near your temporary residence in Croatia.
🕓 How long is the process: The Croatia Digital Nomad visa can take three to four weeks to be approved. Although, in some cases, it may take up to three months if the Embassy receives many applications or you haven’t submitted all the required documents.
💰 Cost of Living: The average cost of living for a single person in Croatia is around €1,269 per month. You can rent a furnished studio apartment for as little as $459/month while a bigger apartment costs around $805/month, in the city center.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: Some of the biggest hotspots for digital nomads in Croatia include the capital Zagreb, Split, and Zadar.
📈 Internet speed: Average 70.3 Mbps.
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads: The Croatian government does not charge any income tax for visitors under the digital nomad visa, so you just need to pay your taxes wherever you have tax residency.
If you’re a lover of sunshine and white sandy beaches, then this is the place for you! Croatia has a lot to offer digital nomads, starting with being part of the Schengen Area, meaning that you will have free travel access to other European countries in the Schengen Zone. It also boasts an incredible culture, with historic towns and scenic villages, as well as lots of stunning national parks. You can also visit all of the set locations from Game of Thrones in Split and Dubrovnik! Truly a digital nomad’s paradise.
After Malta and Greece introduced their digital nomad visas, Cyprus followed, and in October 2021, the government approved the introduction of the Digital Nomad Visa Scheme.
⏰ Visa Length: One year, with the possibility to renew for further two years.
💻 Who Qualifies: Nationals from non-EU and non-EEA countries who work for a company outside Cyprus and are able to perform their work using telecommunication technology.
Note: Applicants can also bring their families, including spouses and children.
🤑 Income Requirements: A minimum monthly net income of at least €3,500.
📄 Document Requirements: Proof of Remote Work, Proof of Income, Criminal Background Check, Proof of Health Insurance, Address of Accommodations, CV and/or Resume, and a Letter of Intent for Living in Cyprus.
Note: you can find the full list of documents here.
💲 Visa Cost: €70
🤓 How to apply: Gather all of the necessary documents, then make an appointment with the local consulate or embassy. You can find the application form online on the consulate’s website. After filling out the form, you pay an issuance fee of €70.
🕓 How long is the process: The waiting time will depend on the consulate. The government promises a processing time of between 5 to 7 weeks, although it has been usually taking two to three months to receive an answer about your visa application.
💰 Cost of Living: The average cost of living for a single person in Cyprus is around €1,659 per month.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: Some of the biggest hotspots for digital nomads in Cyprus include the capital Nicosia, Limassol, and Paphos.
📈 Internet speed: Average 55.11 Mbps.
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads: You are exempted from taxes when living as a digital nomad in Cyprus until the 183rd in the country. After that, you will become a tax resident. Tax residents in Cyprus are only required to pay personal income tax if their income is derived from Cyprus. Therefore, as a digital nomad, you are exempted from paying personal income tax.
The weather is one of the highlights of this small Mediterranean island: the summers are hot and the winters are mild, and the beaches are extraordinary! You can enjoy fast internet speeds all around the island with a variety of coworking spaces and cafes, some located in front of the beach. The majority of local people speak English and live a healthy work-life balance. Between working, you’ll never get bored in Cyprus!
5. Czechia (Czech Republic)
Czechia currently does not have a specific visa designed for digital nomads or remote workers. However, the Zivno Visa, despite being a long-term business visa, allows you to live in the country even if your business is outside Czechia.
Applying for the Zivno Visa does not require you to get a lawyer, like in Armenia. However, the process is not as straightforward which is why many foreigners choose to hire an expert to assist them through the process.
A Trade License (sort of business registration) is required in order to apply for a Zivno Visa. Once you get your Trade License, you can apply for a long-term visa. You should note that the Trade License will only be valid once your long-term visa is approved.
⏰ Visa Length: 12 months, with the option to extend for another 24 months.
💻 Who Qualifies: Nationals from non-EU countries who are planning to stay in Czechia for a period longer than 3 months and up to 1 year while conducting business from the country or working as a freelancer for clients in and out of the country.
🤑 Income Requirements: At least 50 times the Czech subsistence minimum of 3,130 CZK, or 156,500 CZK in total (around €6,706), in your bank account.
📄 Document Requirements: Completed application form, copy of passport, and address of the place where you will be staying while living in Czechia. You also need to indicate your trade type (refer to this list).
Once you have your trade license approved, you can then apply for the Long-Term Visa for the purpose of entrepreneurship (type D).
The documents required to apply for this visa include: Original passport, completed application form, biometric data, trade license extract, proof of accommodation, proof of income, criminal record extract, and proof of Health Insurance.
Note: You can find the complete list of documents needed for the long-term visa application here. You should also note that all of the documents listed above for both applications should be translated into Czech and apostilled.
💲 Visa Cost: The long-term visa costs CKZ 5,000 or around €215, while the trade license costs CKZ 1,150 or about €67.
🤓 How to apply:
- For the trade License: you can apply for the trade license online via Czechia’s Trade Licensing Register website.
- For the Long-Term Visa: Contact your local Czech embassy or consulate to schedule an appointment for your visa application. You can only apply from the country you are currently residing legally. You should bring all the documents mentioned above and prepare for an in-person interview.
🕓 How long is the process: 90 days. The legal processing time can be extended to 120 days in individual cases requiring more examination.
💰 Cost of Living: The average cost of living in Czechia for a single person is €1,808 per month, with studio apartments starting at $835/month and bigger, more comfortable, apartments averaging at around $1,217/month.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: The capital of Czechia, Prague, consistently ranks as one of the world’s best cities for working remotely! A few other hotspots include the cities of Brno, Ostrava, and Olomouc.
📈 Internet speed: Average 74.8 Mbps.
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads: With an income tax rate of 15%, Czechia is one of the lowest tax countries in Europe. If your home country has a tax treaty with Czechia, you can reduce your tax obligation. You can learn more about taxes for Digital Nomads in Czechia here.
With Prague becoming one of the most popular destinations in Europe for digital nomads, it has everything you could want: a low cost of living, fast internet, excellent public transportation, and the best after-work beers! Plus, Czechia, in general, is home to a vibrant culture, stunning architecture, and more than 2000 castles you can visit during your off time.
Estonia was the first European country to offer visas for digital nomads! The Estonia Digital Nomad Visa was first introduced in July 2020, allowing remote workers to live in Estonia while working or doing business remotely.
⏰ Visa Length: You can opt to apply for a short-stay visa (C-Visa), for a duration of 3 months, or a long-stay visa (D-Visa), for a duration of a year. You cannot extend your visa, but you can apply for another one while you are in Estonia.
💻 Who Qualifies: Any foreigner looking to work remotely from Estonia for an employer registered abroad or as a freelancer offering its services to foreign clients.
🤑 Income Requirements: A minimum monthly gross income of €3504 is required for at least six months prior to the application.
📄 Document Requirements: Valid passport, a written description of your study and professional life course, biometric data, proof of income, processing fee payment, and proof of Health Insurance.
Note: You can find the complete list of documents for the application here.
💲 Visa Cost: The price for a long-stay visa (D-Visa) is €100 and the price for a short-stay visa (C-Visa) is €80.
🤓 How to apply: Contact the nearest embassy or consulate of Estonia to set an appointment for the visa application. In some countries, they will require you to book this appointment online. You should bring all the documents mentioned above and prepare for an in-person interview.
Otherwise, you can also apply directly at a Police and Border Guard office in Estonia or at a VFS office which has the right to handle digital nomad visa applications for the Estonian Government (USA, Canada, Australia, Japan, and Ukraine).
🕓 How long is the process: The reviewing process takes up to 30 days. If you applied directly from Estonia, the waiting time is shorter.
💰 Cost of Living: The average cost of living in Estonia for a single person is €1,403 per month.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: The capital of Estonia, Tallinn, is home to a huge digital nomad community! A few other hotspots include the cities of Tartu, Parnu, and Saaremaa.
📈 Internet speed: Average 80.48 Mbps.
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads: After staying for more than 183 consecutive days, you are considered a tax resident and must pay taxes (a flat rate of 20% applied to all types of income). If your home country has a tax treaty with Estonia, you can reduce your tax obligation.
Known as the Silicon Valley of Europe, Estonia is the go-to destination for digital nomads. Offering great internet connection, affordable living costs, and a clean and safe environment, Estonia is a great option for nature lovers who want to be close to enchanting forests and fairy-tale settings while having all your nomad essentials covered. The cherry on top is the possibility to travel freely in any of the Schengen countries!
Georgia used to have a really cool program for digital nomads named Remotely From Georgia, which was launched as a facilitator for digital nomads to relocate to Georgia during the pandemic, while borders remained closed to most tourists. Since March 2022, this program has been terminated.
Luckily enough, Georgia offers a full-year visa-free policy for tourists from many nations, which is an awesome and super simple alternative for digital nomads to work remotely from the country.
On a separate note, you can also register for their Individual Entrepreneur Scheme, which can lead to permanent residency.
💰 Cost of Living: A single person can realistically get by on $500-600/month, while the average cost of living for a couple is around $900-1200/month.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: The capital of Georgia, Tsibili, is the biggest hotspot for digital nomads! A few other places include the cities of Batumi, Kutaisi, and the smaller towns of Gori and Telavi.
📈 Internet speed: Average 40.7 Mbps.
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads: After staying for more than 183 consecutive days, you are considered a tax resident and must pay taxes (a flat rate of 20% applied to all types of income). If your home country has a tax treaty with Georgia, you can reduce your tax obligation. You can also register for the Individual Entrepreneur plan, which taxes you at 1% up to $155,000.
Georgia is one of the most affordable destinations for digital nomads in the world! It’s as affordable as Southeast Asia and safer than Switzerland, with natural landscapes just as unique – from snowy mountains and sulfur water pools to magnificent pebbly beaches. Georgia also boasts one of the oldest cultures in Europe, history-packed architecture, and amazing regional food. Plus, the apartments in Tsibili are lovely!
Researching visa options for Germany is super confusing (we know!), so we’ll try to simplify it for you! There are three different options for digital nomads who would like to work remotely from Germany:
- Working Holiday Programs: for citizens between the ages of 18 and 30, from Australia, New Zealand, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Israel, Chile, and Brazil. This Program offers the opportunity to gain an insight into the culture and daily life in Germany for up to 12 months.
- Gewerbetreibende or Freelancer Residence Permit: this visa is intended for those looking to establish a business in the country. Initially issued for 3 years, can be renewed and make it possible for you to apply for a settlement permit after three years.
- Freiberufler or Self-employed Entry Visa: also called the National Visa (D), this is the visa we’ll be describing in this blog post and it’s aimed at self-employed professionals who wish to work remotely from Germany.
Note: You can check what is the best visa option for you, depending on where you’re coming from and your type of work, here.
⏰ Visa Length: One year, but you can reapply for it.
💻 Who Qualifies: Non-EU citizens who fall under one of the following professions according to German tax law: Scientist, Artist, Writer, Teacher, Doctor, Dentists, Notary, Engineer, Architects, Auditor, Tax consultant, Advisor, Sworn accountant, Physiotherapist, Journalist, Interpreter, Translators, Pilot, Veterinarian, Photo reporter, Business Economists, and Lawyer.
🤑 Income Requirements: Proof of financial means to fund your project and your living expenses. There are no stipulated amounts but taking the Student Visa as a base, we would estimate the very minimum to be €934.00/month or €11,208.00/year.
For those over 45 years old, you must have an adequate pension plan, meaning that you can prove that by 67 years old, you’ll have a monthly pension of €1,332.36 for at least 12 years or assets worth at least €194,631.
📄 Document Requirements: The documents required for this application depend very much on your specific case. Inquire at the German embassy where you will apply for your visa.
💲 Visa Cost: €75
🤓 How to apply:
- Contact the nearest embassy or consulate of Germany in your country of residence to set an appointment for the visa application.
- Complete and print out the visa application form using https://videx-national.diplo.de/videx/
- Bring your application form along with supporting documents with you to your appointment.
- After approval from the Embassy or Consulate General, get your visa sticker on your passport.
- Apply for your residence permit at your local foreigner’s office within 90 days of your arrival, and before starting your self-employed activity.
Note: you can have a quick overview of the entire process from this document.
🕓 How long is the process: It can take as little as one month and as much as 4 to 5 months.
💰 Cost of Living: Germany is ranked the 10th highest in terms of cost of living and the average cost of living for a single person is €2,368 per month.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: The biggest digital nomad hotspots in Germany are Kreuzberg, Cologne, Leipzig, and Munich. Hamburg and Berlin are also great options!
📈 Internet speed: Average 83.69 Mbps.
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads: There are two taxes you have to pay as a freelancer in Germany:
- Income Tax: Paid by any freelancer with an income higher than €9,169. This tax has a base of 14%, which can go up to 42% depending on the case.
- Added Value Tax: Paid by all freelancers based on your revenue, it can be as low as 7%, but the average paid is 19%.
Although getting a digital nomad visa for Germany seems like a lot of work and bureaucracy, it definitely pays off! Germany offers one of the highest quality of living in the world, as well as a rich culture, clean and efficient cities, and beautiful landscapes. A major plus is its location, which makes it easier for a digital nomad based in Germany to explore all of Europe either by car or plane!
In the summer of 2021, the Greek government announced they would be welcoming digital nomads to live in the country if they meet the requirements and launched their Greek Digital Nomad Visa.
⏰ Visa Length: One year, with the possibility of extending it for one more.
💻 Who Qualifies: Non-EU citizens who can meet the requirements.
Note: Applicants can also bring their families, including spouses and children.
🤑 Income Requirements: A monthly income of at least €3,500 if you’re coming alone, €4,200 if you’re bringing a spouse, and €4,830 if you’re bringing a spouse and one dependent.
📄 Document Requirements: Passport copies, passport photos, proof of remote work, proof of income, criminal background check, proof of Health Insurance, medical certificate of good health, and address of accommodations in Greece.
💲 Visa Cost: Application fee of €75 + an administration fee of €150.
🤓 How to apply: Contact the nearest embassy or consulate of Greece to set an appointment for the visa application, when you’ll submit all the documents mentioned above.
🕓 How long is the process: 10 days
💰 Cost of Living: Greece is the cheapest country in Western Europe and the average cost of living for a single person is around €1,312 per month.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: The biggest digital nomad hotspots in Greece are the capital Athens, Thessaloniki, Rhodes, Crete, and the popular, but more expensive, islands of Mykonos and Santorini.
📈 Internet speed: Average 44.60 Mbps.
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads:
- Up to 183 days in a 12-month period – No taxation in Greece
- 184 days up to 2 years – Full Greek taxation
- More than 2 years – 50% income and social security tax reduction, full taxation on other taxes
With a very reasonable cost of living, paradisiacal islands, decent internet speeds, and great food, what else can a digital nomad ask for?! As a digital nomad in Greece, you’re also allowed to travel freely in the Schengen area, making this an awesome destination for anyone looking to work remotely from Europe!
Known as the White Card, the Hungarian Digital Nomad Visa was launched in November 2021 and makes it easier for third-country nationals to live and work remotely from Hungary for an extended period of time.
⏰ Visa Length: One year, and it can be extended for another one.
💻 Who Qualifies: Any non-EEA nationals who possess a valid work contract or shares in a profitable company in a country outside of Hungary, and have no intention to pursue a gainful activity or hold shares in a Hungarian company.
Note: This is an individual residency permit and it does not allow for couples or families to be joined.
🤑 Income Requirements: Monthly income of €2,000, for at least 6 months before entry.
📄 Document Requirements: Valid passport, filled-out application form, facial photograph less than 3 months old, proof of purpose of residence, proof of income for at least 6 months before entry, proof of accommodation, proof of Health Insurance, and documents evidencing the conditions of exit.
💲 Visa Cost: €110
🤓 How to apply: You can apply by filling out the application form and submitting the prescribed documents in person to any consular office of Hungary in the country where you’re a permanent or temporary resident.
🕓 How long is the process: 30 days
💰 Cost of Living: The average cost of living for a single person is around €1,312 per month, but you can live with as low as €600/month.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: The biggest digital nomad hotspots in Hungary are the capital Budapest and the cities of Pecs, Sopron, Szeged, and Debrecen.
📈 Internet speed: Average 123.17 Mbps – one of the fastest internet speeds in Europe!
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads: If your home country is not on this list, you will be required to pay taxes on both foreign and domestic income. Tax on foreign income kicks in once you have been in the country for 183 days and become a tax resident. The personal tax rate is 15%.
With one of the fastest internet speeds in Europe, Hungary is a digital nomad haven! It offers everything you could ask for – affordable accommodation, delicious food and wine, a vibrant social scene, coworking spaces, and cozy cafes! Not to mention several architectural tourist sites like the Early Christian Mausoleum and the Mosque of Pasha Gazi Kasim. If you’re a fan of winter destinations, Hungary is the place for you!
The land of fire and ice was one of the first Schengen countries to introduce a digital nomad visa, known as Iceland’s Long-term Visa for Remote Work.
⏰ Visa Length: 180 days
Note: This visa cannot be extended and you can only reapply after 12 months of leaving the country.
💻 Who Qualifies: Non-EU/EEA/EFTA citizens from countries that have a visa-free agreement with Iceland, that have not held any long-term visas for Iceland in the past year, and can prove they work for an employer outside of Iceland or are verifiably self-employed in the country in which they have permanent residence.
🤑 Income Requirements: Monthly income of ISK 1,000,000 or around €6,680, and ISK 1,300,000 or around €8,690 if you’re bringing a partner – one of the highest income requirements in the world.
📄 Document Requirements: Copy of passport, passport photo (35×45 mm) not older than 6 months, clean criminal record, proof of income, fee payment receipt, proof of Health Insurance, and documents confirming the purpose of stay in Iceland.
💲 Visa Cost: ISK 12.200 or around €82. The fee must be transferred to a bank account and is non-refundable – you can find more info about this process here.
🤓 How to apply: The only way to apply for the Long-term Visa for Remote Work in Iceland is by mail. Here’s the step-by-step:
- Pay the processing fee of ISK 12.200, and save the payment receipt to send with your application.
- Fill out the application form. Print it, fill it out, and sign it.
- Gather all the documents listed above and mail them to the Directorate of Immigration.
Note: if you apply from within a Schengen country, then your Icelandic visa can only be issued for up to 90 days. If you apply from within Iceland, or if you enter Iceland or any other Schengen country before your visa is approved, that time will be deducted from your visa.
🕓 How long is the process: Since the application is done by mail, there is no definite waiting time. It can take a couple of weeks to more than a month.
💰 Cost of Living: Iceland is one of the most expensive countries to live in, with high costs for food, housing, and transportation. The average cost of living for a single person is around €3,439 per month.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: The capital Reykjavik, where 60% of people live, is the biggest digital nomad hotspot in Iceland.
📈 Internet speed: Iceland has the fastest broadband in the world with an average speed of 216.56Mbps.
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads: You are exempt from paying taxes in Iceland while working remotely.
Probably not the easiest visa for a digital nomad but if you plan on exploring the natural wonders of one of the world’s most fascinating countries this might be the one for you! Reykjavik, where you would probably be based, is a modern city with great infrastructure that offers an excellent quality of living. Getting around the city is easy and if you rent a car you might as well explore the whole country! English is also widely spoken and the locals are warm and friendly. The biggest highlight: you will have the opportunity to witness the magnificent Northern Lights or Aurora Borealis!
Latvia is one of the latest countries to have introduced a digital nomad visa that allows freelancers and those who can work remotely to live in the country.
⏰ Visa Length: 12 months. It can be renewed after 6 months out of the country, for another 12 months.
💻 Who Qualifies: Only citizens from an OECD country, third-nationals employed by a company registered in an OECD country, and self-employees who have their businesses registered in an OECD country are allowed to apply for the Latvian digital nomad visa.
Note: Currently, 38 countries are part of the OECD. You can see all of them here.
🤑 Income Requirements: Monthly income of €3192.50 (or not less than 2.5 times the average salary in Latvia).
📄 Document Requirements: Valid passport, completed and signed application form, proof of income for the last six months, by working remotely, proof of Health Insurance valid in Latvia with a minimum coverage of €42,600, documents confirming the purpose of stay in Latvia, and proof of accommodation.
Note: you can find the complete list of documents here.
💲 Visa Cost: €60, which must be paid before submission of documents. The fee must be transferred to a bank account and is non-refundable – you can find more info about this process here.
🤓 How to apply: First, you need to pay the processing fee of €60 (save the payment receipt), then fill out the application form. Once that’s done, contact the nearest embassy or consulate of Latvia to set an appointment for the visa application, when you’ll submit all the documents mentioned above.
Note: Embassies and consulates of Latvia receive applications no earlier than 3 months before the start of the intended visit.
🕓 How long is the process: 15 days. If further information is required, it can take up to 60 days.
💰 Cost of Living: The average cost of living for a single person is around €1,274 per month, with a one-bedroom apartment in the center of Riga costing an average of €400 per month.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: The biggest digital nomad hotspots in Latvia are the capital Riga and the cities of Liepaja, Sabile, and Kuldiga.
📈 Internet speed: Average 72 Mbps.
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads: The legislative has recently proposed the opportunity to third-country citizens, who have obtained a digital nomad visa and have become tax residents in Latvia, to apply a flat tax rate of 15% to their income (instead of the progressive personal income tax rate). Although no decision has been officially made.
If you don’t mind the cold weather, Latvia is a great country to live in as a digital nomad! Situated between Estonia and Lithuania, almost half of its territory is of untouched natural landscapes, making it a calm and tranquil place to live. The capital Riga is the exception, with a bustling and vibrant atmosphere, fantastic restaurants, and lovely parks. The country has everything to become one of Europe’s most popular hubs for digital nomads!
Tiny Malta introduced a digital nomad visa called the Nomad Residency Permit in June 2021.
⏰ Visa Length: One year, and it can be renewed twice.
💻 Who Qualifies: Non-EEA citizens who work for a foreign registered employer, are a shareholder or a partner in a foreign registered company, or are freelancers to clients with permanent establishments in foreign countries.
Note: Nationals from the currently ineligible countries of Afghanistan, North Korea, Iran, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Yemen, Russia, Belarus, and Venezuela are not eligible to apply.
🤑 Income Requirements: Monthly income of €2,700 (gross), or a minimum gross yearly income of €32,400.
Note: An additional 20% of the Malta median wage (currently €777.10) is required for each family member to be included in the application.
💲 Visa Cost: €300
🤓 How to apply: You must submit all of the documents via email to the Maltese authorities. You will then receive the instructions for the payment of the administrative fee. The payment should be made from the main applicant’s bank account.
Note: You can find the email as well as the whole process outlined here.
🕓 How long is the process: 30 days.
💰 Cost of Living: The average cost of living for a single person in Malta is around €1,970 per month.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: The biggest digital nomad hotspots in Malta are the capital Valletta and the cities of Sliema and San Gwann. Being a very tiny island, the cities have the size of neighborhoods and you should be fine almost anywhere you choose to live. The island of Gozo is an option if you prefer a chilled and tranquil vibe!
📈 Internet speed: Average 85.20Mbps.
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads: Digital Nomads pay 0% income tax in Malta.
There are so many reasons to consider Malta as a digital nomad and as people who have already lived there for over two years, you might as well fall in love with the island! The country offers over 300 days of sunshine a year, with incredible summers and very mild winters. During the summer, the days are extra long and the sea is always waiting for you to finish work. This might be just the reason why the ex-pat community in Malta is forever growing! As a plus, English is one of the official languages in the country and the social scene is great, with lots of ex-pat meetup groups, pubs, and parties.
Known as the Independent Contractor Visa, Norway’s digital nomad visa has created an opportunity for remote workers to live and work in the country.
Note: there used to be a Norway Digital Nomad Visa specifically for the island of Svalbard, although we could not find government-related material attesting to its existence still.
⏰ Visa Length: Up to two years.
💻 Who Qualifies: Non-EEA citizens who are self-employed with an established business abroad (must normally be your own sole proprietorship and not a limited company), and have entered into a contract to carry out an assignment for a business/client in Norway.
Note: your qualifications as a skilled worker must be relevant to your ability to complete the assignment. If you are going to carry out an assignment in an occupation for which recognition or authorization is required, you must have such approval or authorization. You can find the list of regulated professions here.
🤑 Income Requirements: Yearly income of NOK 449,900 or around €38,700.
📄 Document Requirements: Passport & copy of Passport (all used pages), two passport photos, contract with Norwegian client, documentation of Business established abroad, proof of education, CV & work history, address of accommodation in Norway, proof of Health Insurance, and completed application form.
Note: you can find the complete list of documents here. This checklist should also be printed, filled out, signed, and handed along with the above-mentioned documents.
💲 Visa Cost: €600
🤓 How to apply: You can submit your Norway digital nomad visa application and documents in three different ways:
- In Norway: you can apply for a visa at any local police station. You must prove that you are in the country legally at this time.
- Through a Norwegian embassy or consulate: make an appointment and submit your application and required documents.
- Online: through the UDI (The Norwegian Directorate of Immigration) Application Portal.
🕓 How long is the process: 4 months.
💰 Cost of Living: Norway is an expensive place to live, with the average cost of living for a single person being around €2,479 per month.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: The biggest digital nomad hotspots in Norway are the capital Oslo, and the cities of Bergen and Trondheim.
📈 Internet speed: Average 106.64 Mbps.
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads: If your home country is not on this list, you will be required to pay taxes on both foreign and domestic income. Tax on foreign income kicks in once you have been in the country for 183 days and become a tax resident. General income is taxed at a flat rate of 22%.
Definitely not the cheapest place to base yourself as a digital nomad but if you have the bucks and are ok with the cold weather, the benefits are plenty! Norway offers one of the greatest quality of living, well-developed infrastructure, and stunning landscapes. Internet connections are great all over the country and most of the locals speak English. Another great advantage is that most major airports in Norway have direct flights to various cities in Europe, and as part of the Schengen Zone, you’ll have free travel access to other 26 European countries.
Portugal has several Visa options for digital nomads:
- D7 Passive Income Visa: for those who have sufficient passive income from outside the country to sustain themselves and any family members.
- D8 Digital Nomad Visa: launched in October 2022, it is known as the residence visa for the exercise of professional activity provided remotely outside the national territory.
⏰ Visa Length: the visa length for the D7 Passive Income Visa if of 2 years, and it can be renewed for up to 5 years, while the visa length for the D8 Digital Nomad Visa if of 1 year, and it can be renewed for up to 5 years.
Note: for both options, after 5 years, you have the option to apply for permanent residency.
💻 Who Qualifies: Non-EU/EEA/Swiss citizens.
🤑 Income Requirements
- D7 Passive Income Visa: the equivalent of a minimum yearly salary in Portugal which is currently €10,644 per year (€887/month). If you are bringing a spouse, you must show another 50% on top of that, and another 30% for a dependent child.
- D8 Digital Nomad Visa: a salary of at least four times the Portuguese minimum wage, or €3,548 (€887/month).
📄 Document Requirements: Cover letter, valid passport, two passport-sized photographs, completed application form, criminal record certificate, proof of Health Insurance, and proof of visa fee payment. Marriage and/or birth certificates are also needed for dependents.
Specific documents, per visa:
- D7 Passive Income Visa: proof of accommodation for at least 12 months, a NIF (Portuguese tax number – more on this below), a Portuguese bank account with at least €7.000 deposited in it (€10.500 if you’re married), proof of financial self-sufficiency (enough savings, recurring passive income, or both).
- D8 Digital Nomad Visa: proof of regular income for the past 3 months, an employment contract from a foreign employer, or if you’re a freelancer, a contract that proves you work with clients; and proof of means of subsistence through a statement of responsibility.
Note: passive income may be earned from: your pension, intellectual property, transferable equity, royalties, real estate, interest from your savings, financial investments with long-term, fixed-rate returns, dividends (as long as you’re not an employee of the company), or any other regular passive income that can fully support you, even without a monthly salary.
Note: all original documents must be translated into Portuguese and Apostilled by the issuing country.
💲 Visa Cost: €180 for the Temporary-Stay visa + €320 for the Resident Permit
🤓 How to apply: First, you need to apply for a Temporary-Stay visa for Portugal (valid for 120 days). Once this is granted, you will need to enter Portugal and Register as a Resident.
- Embassy: This is when you’ll submit your application for the digital nomad visa at the Portuguese consulate in your home country, with all the documentation mentioned above.
- Residency Permit: once in Portugal, you’ll apply for a residency permit at the SEF.
Note: in order to register as a resident at the SEF, you will need to provide proof of a NIF and a Portuguese Bank Account (you can get both done online through a company like Bordr for around $470), as well as submit a new application form, in Portuguese. The resident permit takes about two weeks to be processed and is usually valid for two years.
For the D7 Passive Income Visa, you’ll need to obtain your NIF (Portuguese tax number), open a Portuguese bank account, and make the deposit required, as well as get proof of accommodation, before your interview with the Embassy.
🕓 How long is the process: 3-4 months.
💰 Cost of Living: The average cost of living for a single person in Portugal is around €1,583 per month.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: The biggest digital nomad hotspots in Portugal are the capital Lisbon, the cities of Porto, Braga, and Faro, as well as the island of Madeira.
📈 Internet speed: Average 132 Mbps.
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads: With the Temporary-Stay visa, you will only be charged a 15% tax rate, as opposed to the standard Portuguese 25% for the whole duration of your stay. However, you can become a non-habitual resident (NHR) for tax purposes after one year (considering that you have spent at least 183 days in the country). As an NHR, you will have the following benefits:
- No taxes to pay on foreign income
- 20% tax to pay on income earned in Portugal
- 10% social contribution, which is less than the standard rate
Portugal offers everything every digital nomad loves: fast internet, plenty of coworking spaces with a thriving nomad community, lovely weather, stunning beaches, and an affordable cost of living. When not working, you will find yourself surrounded by infinite attractions to explore around the country! In addition, food in Portugal is to die for! What else can you ask?!
Officially announced on December 2021, Romania launched its new Digital Nomad Visa.
⏰ Visa Length: 12 months, renewable for up to up to 36 months.
💻 Who Qualifies: Non-EU/EEA/Swiss citizens who are employed with an employment contract by a company registered outside Romania or who own a company registered outside Romania and may work as an employee or within the company, remotely.
🤑 Income Requirements: Three times the Romanian average gross salary (6,095 lei/Month), which is around €3,700 per month.
📄 Document Requirements: Proof of self-employment, proof of your earnings for the past six months, proof of Health Insurance, proof of accommodation, proof of a ticket to enter the country, proof that you are up to date with your taxes, and a letter of intent.
Note: all original documents must be translated into Romanian and Apostilled.
💲 Visa Cost: €120 Euros for the application + 259 lei or around €53 Euros for the residence permit.
🤓 How to apply: First, you will need to get a long-stay permit which allows you to stay up to 90 days in the country. You can apply online or through a Romanian embassy in your country of residence/citizenship.
Once in Romania, you need to apply for a residence permit based on your Digital Nomad Visa, which will give you 6 more months in the country (and can be renewed up to 36 months). For this application, you can submit all the documents online – although you might still be asked to go in person to one of the immigration offices.
Note: for the residence permit, you’ll need a few additional documents such as the filled-out application form, a medical certificate stating you don’t have any diseases that are a threat to public health, and proof of fee payment.
🕓 How long is the process: 10 to 14 working days.
💰 Cost of Living: The average cost of living for a single person in Romania is around €995 per month.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: The biggest digital nomad hotspots in Romania are the capital Bucharest, and the cities of Timisoara, Cluj Napoca, Brasov, and Iasi.
📈 Internet speed: Average 175 Mbps.
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads: The Romanian government does not charge any income tax for visitors under the digital nomad visa, so you just need to pay your taxes wherever you have tax residency.
Romania has super-fast internet and some of the lowest costs of living in Europe, which is a dream combination for any digital nomad! The country is also filled with magical historical sites, castles, and stunning landscapes and the locals are friendly and open to showing you around. The digital nomad community is big, and once you’re settled, you can use the fourth-largest railway network to explore the country with your new friends!
In January 2023, Spain launched their Digital Nomad Visa as part of a group of measures created to encourage entrepreneurship and foreign investment in the country, known as the Startup Act.
Before that, Spain already offered a Non-Lucrative Visa (NLV), which is still an option for digital nomads that earn passive income, and the Golden Visa program for those who want to invest in the country. We will be covering only the new Digital Nomad Visa.
⏰ Visa Length: One year, renewable for up to 5 years. After 5 years, you have the option to apply for permanent residency.
💻 Who Qualifies: Non-EU/EEA/Swiss citizens who are remote workers, freelancers, or self-employed.
🤑 Income Requirements: At least twice the minimum wage or €2,334 per month, or an early income of €28,000.
Note: the income bracket goes up 75% for the first person accompanying you (whether a spouse or child), and an additional 25% for each individual after that.
📄 Document Requirements: Completed copy of the National Visa Application Form (one for each person), valid passport with one-year validity and two blank pages, two passport photos, proof of suitable employment, proof that your employer/company has been active for at least one year, proof of income, proof of qualifications (university degree, professional certificate, or evidence of at least three years of experience), proof of Health Insurance, criminal record check certificates for the last five years and proof of familial relationship to other applicants (marriage certificate, birth certificate).
Note: requirements for Spanish translations of documents may vary depending on where you make your application.
💲 Visa Cost: €80, with slight variation depending on the country you are applying from.
🤓 How to apply: Contact your local Spanish embassy or consulate to schedule an appointment for your visa application. You should bring all the documents mentioned above and prepare for an in-person interview.
Note: You will be required to leave your passport at the embassy or consulate while they are assessing your application.
Once in Spain, you will require an NIE (national identity number) and a NIF (tax number). You can either apply for these at your local embassy before heading to Spain or after your arrival – it is generally easier to apply once in Spain.
🕓 How long is the process: 15-45 days.
💰 Cost of Living: The average cost of living for a single person in Spain is around €1,568 per month.
🤩 Digital Nomad Hotspots: The biggest digital nomad hotspots in Spain are of course the popular cities of Madrid, Barcelona, and Seville, but also the Balearic Islands, Valencia, San Sebastian, and Malaga.
📈 Internet speed: Average 180.3 Mbps.
💸 Taxes for Digital Nomads: If your home country is not on this list, you will be required to pay taxes on both foreign and domestic income. Tax on foreign income kicks in once you have been in the country for 183 days and become a tax resident, although, on this particular visa, you are eligible for a special tax rate of 15% on income up to €600,000 per year for the first four years of your stay in Spain. The standard tax rate is 24%.
Spain has it all – from paradisiacal Mediterranean beaches to snow-covered mountains and bustling cities that scream diversity! Being a very affordable country, digital nomads consider this a favorite among the community. As a plus, you might be able to pursue permanent residency and enjoy the most delicious food forever!